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巴比伦、印度、中国、埃及和罗马, 谁是那个时代最发达的帝国

Were Greek and Roman empires the most advanced ones for its time, were or Babylon, India, China, Egypt, etc. more advanced than them?

希腊和罗马帝国是那个时代最发达的帝国吗?抑或巴比伦、印度、中国、埃及等国更为发达?

 

QUORA网站读者评论:

来源:三泰虎     http://www.fjstf.live/46093.html      译者:Joyceliu

 

Michel Juneau, Sanskritist, student of history

If we consider the classical period, say 500 BCE to 500 CE (where CE = common era = AD), India was more advanced in many fields, such as mathematics - including the invention of ‘Arabic’ numerals and zero -, grammar and phonetics, astronomy, botany, logical inference, metallurgy - steel for blades, smelting of zinc -, banking and mass production of cloth exports manufactured using various printing processes. Rome was ahead in architecture and engineering - bridges, aqueducts and public buildings, water wheels, road building - as well as military technology and organisation.

如果我们考虑到是古典时期公元前500年到公元500年(CE =公历纪元=公元),印度在许多领域更为发达,如数学——包括阿拉伯数字和零的发明,语法和语音学、天文学、植物学、逻辑?#35780;懟?#20918;金-钢叶片、冶炼锌、银行业和大规模生产服装出口,使用多种印刷工艺。罗马在建筑和工程方面领先——比如桥梁、沟渠和公共建筑、水轮、公路建设——以及军事技术和统治机构。

Let me talk in more detail about that quintessential Roman speciality: the arch.

让我更详细地谈谈罗马的精髓所在:拱门。

India had advanced stoneworking techniques, but did not use them to build arches, which had been known in the Middle East since great antiquity - the earliest surviving example is the Bronze Age arched Canaanite city gate of Ashkelon in modern-day Israel, dating to c. 1850 BCE - but not used much except by Romans until the Arabs and Persians picked up on them. In Mesopotamia they were mostly used for drains back then.

印度有先进的石料加工技术,但没有使用它们来建造拱门,这在中东自古就为人所知——现存最早的例子是青铜时代的拱形迦南城门,在今天的以色列,可追溯到公元前1850年- - -但在阿拉伯人和波斯人注意到他们之?#22467;?#32599;马人很少使用它。在美索不达米亚,当时石?#20998;?#35201;用于排水沟。

But then in 350 CE, the Sassanian emperor built a magnificent catenary vault to cover the audience chamber in his new new palace at Ctesiphon. The catenary vault mimics the shape of a hanging chain (Latin catena) but upside down, and requires no buttressing, which is why it is still standing. This was apparently first used in this building, not in Rome. (The catenary arch was later used by Christopher Wren in St. Paul’s Cathedral, and is used in the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona.)

但是在公元350年,萨珊皇帝在泰西封的新宫殿里建造了一个华丽的悬链线拱顶,?#32654;?#35206;盖他的新宫殿。悬链线拱顶模仿了悬链(拉丁语catena)的形状,但它是倒置的,不需要支撑,这就是为什么它仍然屹立不倒的原因。这显然是第一次在这个建筑中使用,而不是在罗马。(拱悬链线拱门后来也被克里斯托弗·雷恩在圣保罗大教堂和巴塞罗那圣家堂中使用。)

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Most ancient Indian temples used corbelled arches and domes, in which each course of a wall is cantilevered out from the lower course until they meet in the middle. This required an equal weight of masonry on the other side to balance, so the buildings were absolutely massive, with little interior space and almost no light. The Bhitargaon temple (450 AD) and Mahabodhi temple (7th century AD) built in by Gupta Dynasty, included true arches, but the technique was not picked up by the architectural style as a whole.

大多数古老的印度庙宇都使用带支撑的拱门和圆顶,每一层墙都从较低的层伸出,直到它们在中间相遇。这需要在另一侧用同样重量的砖石来平衡,所以建筑体都很庞大,内部空间很小,几乎没有光线。公元450年,古普塔王朝修建了比塔冈寺和摩诃菩提寺(公元7世纪),修建了真正的拱门,但整个建筑风格并没有采用这种技术。

Indians kept building temples this way even after the Muslim invaders came building their domed mosques, until this day. The point of the Indian temple was not to shelter people. All the interior space needed was enough to house one or more murtis, and to allow a few pandits to make offerings. The point of the temple was to provide an ostentatious outwards display, to communicate various things, local history, legends, etc, in the various decorations, and to let the deity know that those who paid for this really, really appreciate his or her support. So there was no real reason to adopt the true arch and dome for monumental architecture.

直到今天,印度人仍然以这种方式建造寺庙,即使是在侵略者建造圆顶之后。印度寺庙的目的不是为了庇护人们。所有的内部空间都足够容纳一个或更多的宗室和一些梵学?#25233;?#20316;供品。寺庙的目的是为了向外展示一些浮华的东西,通过各种各样的装饰传达各种?#34385;椋?#24403;地的历史,传说等等,让神知道那些为此付出的人真的,真的?#34892;?#20182;或她的支持。因此,采用真正的拱形和穹顶的纪念性建筑并没有真正的理由。

This is a temple ‘shikhara’ with corbelled construction.

这是一座带支撑结构的“锡客哈拉”寺庙。

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I also provide a picture of the Mahabodhi Buddhist temple, which has a true dome, below. I am sure that you will agree that Indian temple building did not really need the true dome.

我还贴了一幅马哈菩提佛教寺庙的图片,它有一个真正的圆顶,在下面。我相信你会同意印度寺庙建筑并不需要真正的圆顶。

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This experience supports the answer given by Robert Maxwell. Societies develop technology that they need to fit within the social and economic framework.

这个经验支持Robert Maxwell给出的答?#28014;?#31038;会发展他们需要的技术以适应社会和经济。

It is worth pointing out that stone arches were used in China in ancient times, the oldest surviving example Being the Anji Bridge dating from around 600 CE. This is not a rudimentary arch. On the contrary it is a fairly sophisticated open-spandrel segmental arch bridge built entirely of stone. The basic principle of the open-spandrel segmental arch bridge ways applied in Hadrian’s Bridge over the Danube built from 103 to 105 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, but he used timber arches, each spanning 38 metres.

值得指出的是,中国古代使用石?#22467;?#29616;存最古老的例子是公元600年左右的安吉桥。这已经不是基本的拱门了。相反,它是一个相当复杂的开放拱桥,完全由石头砌成。公元103年到105年,大马士革的阿波罗多洛斯在多瑙?#30001;?#24314;造?#26031;?#24503;良大桥,它采用了开放的拱肩式分段拱桥的基本原理。

This style of timber arches on stone bases has been much used in the Far East since. To me it seems that a stone bridge might be fine in the dry Mediterranean with its small streams, but would have been prohibitively expensive spanning the mighty Danube, especially as great rivers have a tendency to wash out bridges as the Danube did Hadrian’s bridge a few decades later, and as has been the fate of a great many bridges in China over the years.

从那以后,这种以石头为基础的木拱门就在远东广泛使用。在我看来石桥可能对干燥的地中海的小溪流来?#20302;?#21512;适,但跨越多瑙河的成本非常昂高,尤其是大河容易冲垮桥梁,多瑙河?#32479;?#22446;?#26031;?#24503;良桥(建成几十年之后),中国许多桥梁也是如此的命运。

Here is a beautiful example of a open-spandrel segmental timber arch bridge from Japan: the Kintai Bridge in Yamaguchi Prefecture, built in 1673. The pic shows one pier and the underside of the arch.

这里有一个来自日本的开放式拱肩木拱桥的美丽例子:建于1673年的山口县金泰桥。这张照片显示了桥墩和拱门的底部。

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Interestingly, the principle of the true arch was independently invented in pre-Colombian Meso-America, as well as by the Inuit (‘Eskimos’) in the humble igloo.

有趣的是,真正的拱形建筑的原理是中南美洲前哥伦比亚人独立发明的,以及简陋的冰屋中的因纽特人(爱斯基摩人)发明的。

 

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