快乐扑克任选三
快乐扑克开奖公告 快乐扑克3走势图彩乐乐 快乐扑克3走势图爱彩人 快乐扑克牌3遗漏 快乐扑克360彩票 河北快乐扑克奖金等级 河北体彩快乐扑克玩法官网 快乐扑克3任选走势图 快乐扑克追顺子技巧 山东体彩快乐扑克3开奖表 体育彩票快乐扑克三走势图 快乐扑克常规追号 山东快乐扑克牌3走势图 快乐扑克三开奖查询 山东快乐扑克3玩法

巴比倫、印度、中國、埃及和羅馬, 誰是那個時代最發達的帝國

Were Greek and Roman empires the most advanced ones for its time, were or Babylon, India, China, Egypt, etc. more advanced than them?

希臘和羅馬帝國是那個時代最發達的帝國嗎?抑或巴比倫、印度、中國、埃及等國更為發達?

 

QUORA網站讀者評論:

來源:三泰虎     http://www.fjstf.live/46093.html      譯者:Joyceliu

 

Michel Juneau, Sanskritist, student of history

If we consider the classical period, say 500 BCE to 500 CE (where CE = common era = AD), India was more advanced in many fields, such as mathematics - including the invention of ‘Arabic’ numerals and zero -, grammar and phonetics, astronomy, botany, logical inference, metallurgy - steel for blades, smelting of zinc -, banking and mass production of cloth exports manufactured using various printing processes. Rome was ahead in architecture and engineering - bridges, aqueducts and public buildings, water wheels, road building - as well as military technology and organisation.

如果我們考慮到是古典時期公元前500年到公元500年(CE =公歷紀元=公元),印度在許多領域更為發達,如數學——包括阿拉伯數字和零的發明,語法和語音學、天文學、植物學、邏輯推理、冶金-鋼葉片、冶煉鋅、銀行業和大規模生產服裝出口,使用多種印刷工藝。羅馬在建筑和工程方面領先——比如橋梁、溝渠和公共建筑、水輪、公路建設——以及軍事技術和統治機構。

Let me talk in more detail about that quintessential Roman speciality: the arch.

讓我更詳細地談談羅馬的精髓所在:拱門。

India had advanced stoneworking techniques, but did not use them to build arches, which had been known in the Middle East since great antiquity - the earliest surviving example is the Bronze Age arched Canaanite city gate of Ashkelon in modern-day Israel, dating to c. 1850 BCE - but not used much except by Romans until the Arabs and Persians picked up on them. In Mesopotamia they were mostly used for drains back then.

印度有先進的石料加工技術,但沒有使用它們來建造拱門,這在中東自古就為人所知——現存最早的例子是青銅時代的拱形迦南城門,在今天的以色列,可追溯到公元前1850年- - -但在阿拉伯人和波斯人注意到他們之前,羅馬人很少使用它。在美索不達米亞,當時石頭主要用于排水溝。

But then in 350 CE, the Sassanian emperor built a magnificent catenary vault to cover the audience chamber in his new new palace at Ctesiphon. The catenary vault mimics the shape of a hanging chain (Latin catena) but upside down, and requires no buttressing, which is why it is still standing. This was apparently first used in this building, not in Rome. (The catenary arch was later used by Christopher Wren in St. Paul’s Cathedral, and is used in the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona.)

但是在公元350年,薩珊皇帝在泰西封的新宮殿里建造了一個華麗的懸鏈線拱頂,用來覆蓋他的新宮殿。懸鏈線拱頂模仿了懸鏈(拉丁語catena)的形狀,但它是倒置的,不需要支撐,這就是為什么它仍然屹立不倒的原因。這顯然是第一次在這個建筑中使用,而不是在羅馬。(拱懸鏈線拱門后來也被克里斯托弗·雷恩在圣保羅大教堂和巴塞羅那圣家堂中使用。)

main-qimg-45bb6f20a48db7c6617e5a8b003a22fe.jpg

Most ancient Indian temples used corbelled arches and domes, in which each course of a wall is cantilevered out from the lower course until they meet in the middle. This required an equal weight of masonry on the other side to balance, so the buildings were absolutely massive, with little interior space and almost no light. The Bhitargaon temple (450 AD) and Mahabodhi temple (7th century AD) built in by Gupta Dynasty, included true arches, but the technique was not picked up by the architectural style as a whole.

大多數古老的印度廟宇都使用帶支撐的拱門和圓頂,每一層墻都從較低的層伸出,直到它們在中間相遇。這需要在另一側用同樣重量的磚石來平衡,所以建筑體都很龐大,內部空間很小,幾乎沒有光線。公元450年,古普塔王朝修建了比塔岡寺和摩訶菩提寺(公元7世紀),修建了真正的拱門,但整個建筑風格并沒有采用這種技術。

Indians kept building temples this way even after the Muslim invaders came building their domed mosques, until this day. The point of the Indian temple was not to shelter people. All the interior space needed was enough to house one or more murtis, and to allow a few pandits to make offerings. The point of the temple was to provide an ostentatious outwards display, to communicate various things, local history, legends, etc, in the various decorations, and to let the deity know that those who paid for this really, really appreciate his or her support. So there was no real reason to adopt the true arch and dome for monumental architecture.

直到今天,印度人仍然以這種方式建造寺廟,即使是在侵略者建造圓頂之后。印度寺廟的目的不是為了庇護人們。所有的內部空間都足夠容納一個或更多的宗室和一些梵學家制作供品。寺廟的目的是為了向外展示一些浮華的東西,通過各種各樣的裝飾傳達各種事情,當地的歷史,傳說等等,讓神知道那些為此付出的人真的,真的感謝他或她的支持。因此,采用真正的拱形和穹頂的紀念性建筑并沒有真正的理由。

This is a temple ‘shikhara’ with corbelled construction.

這是一座帶支撐結構的“錫客哈拉”寺廟。

main-qimg-e57bd58ab0fd45303bdb32d5631f900a.jpg

I also provide a picture of the Mahabodhi Buddhist temple, which has a true dome, below. I am sure that you will agree that Indian temple building did not really need the true dome.

我還貼了一幅馬哈菩提佛教寺廟的圖片,它有一個真正的圓頂,在下面。我相信你會同意印度寺廟建筑并不需要真正的圓頂。

main-qimg-49318daba88ee4e8ef9c126b1b0f123f.jpg

This experience supports the answer given by Robert Maxwell. Societies develop technology that they need to fit within the social and economic framework.

這個經驗支持Robert Maxwell給出的答案。社會發展他們需要的技術以適應社會和經濟。

It is worth pointing out that stone arches were used in China in ancient times, the oldest surviving example Being the Anji Bridge dating from around 600 CE. This is not a rudimentary arch. On the contrary it is a fairly sophisticated open-spandrel segmental arch bridge built entirely of stone. The basic principle of the open-spandrel segmental arch bridge ways applied in Hadrian’s Bridge over the Danube built from 103 to 105 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, but he used timber arches, each spanning 38 metres.

值得指出的是,中國古代使用石拱,現存最古老的例子是公元600年左右的安吉橋。這已經不是基本的拱門了。相反,它是一個相當復雜的開放拱橋,完全由石頭砌成。公元103年到105年,大馬士革的阿波羅多洛斯在多瑙河上建造了哈德良大橋,它采用了開放的拱肩式分段拱橋的基本原理。

This style of timber arches on stone bases has been much used in the Far East since. To me it seems that a stone bridge might be fine in the dry Mediterranean with its small streams, but would have been prohibitively expensive spanning the mighty Danube, especially as great rivers have a tendency to wash out bridges as the Danube did Hadrian’s bridge a few decades later, and as has been the fate of a great many bridges in China over the years.

從那以后,這種以石頭為基礎的木拱門就在遠東廣泛使用。在我看來石橋可能對干燥的地中海的小溪流來說挺合適,但跨越多瑙河的成本非常昂高,尤其是大河容易沖垮橋梁,多瑙河就沖垮了哈德良橋(建成幾十年之后),中國許多橋梁也是如此的命運。

Here is a beautiful example of a open-spandrel segmental timber arch bridge from Japan: the Kintai Bridge in Yamaguchi Prefecture, built in 1673. The pic shows one pier and the underside of the arch.

這里有一個來自日本的開放式拱肩木拱橋的美麗例子:建于1673年的山口縣金泰橋。這張照片顯示了橋墩和拱門的底部。

main-qimg-8aa5f194e1ece2019fd43a905a87441a.jpg

Interestingly, the principle of the true arch was independently invented in pre-Colombian Meso-America, as well as by the Inuit (‘Eskimos’) in the humble igloo.

有趣的是,真正的拱形建筑的原理是中南美洲前哥倫比亞人獨立發明的,以及簡陋的冰屋中的因紐特人(愛斯基摩人)發明的。

 

三泰虎原創譯文,禁止轉載!:首頁 > 美國 » 巴比倫、印度、中國、埃及和羅馬, 誰是那個時代最發達的帝國

()
分享到:

快乐扑克任选三
快乐扑克开奖公告 快乐扑克3走势图彩乐乐 快乐扑克3走势图爱彩人 快乐扑克牌3遗漏 快乐扑克360彩票 河北快乐扑克奖金等级 河北体彩快乐扑克玩法官网 快乐扑克3任选走势图 快乐扑克追顺子技巧 山东体彩快乐扑克3开奖表 体育彩票快乐扑克三走势图 快乐扑克常规追号 山东快乐扑克牌3走势图 快乐扑克三开奖查询 山东快乐扑克3玩法
澳门有龙虎吗 重庆时时彩五星稳定方法 澳门配码赚钱技巧 3d试机号金码最近10 双色球拖胆怎么算中奖 竞彩足球比分即时比分 法罗群岛 羽毛球比分直播赛果 惠泽社群包六肖稳赚 欢乐炸金花2017版下载